GATE Syllabus for Chemistry (XL-H)

GATE Syllabus for Chemistry (XL-H): is crucial to know before preparing for the examination of GATE examination. It is an all India examination that provides a comprehensive understanding in the various undergraduate subjects Technology/Architecture/Engineering and post-graduate level subjects in Science. The examination organized by IIS and the syllabus is provided here:

Section 1: Atomic Structure and Periodicity:

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Wave-particle duality, uncertainty principle, the quantum mechanical model of the hydrogen atom, Planck’s quantum theory, electronic configuration of atoms and ions. Periodic table and periodic properties: ionization energy, electronegativity, atomic size, and electron affinity,

Section 2: Structure and Bonding:

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Ionic and covalent bonding, VSEPR theory and shape of molecules, resonance, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions, dipole moment, MO and VB approaches for diatomic molecules, hybridization, structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy. Ionic solids, ionic radii and lattice energy (Born‐Haber cycle). HSAB principle.

Section 3: s, p and d Block Elements:

Alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali. General characteristics of 3d elements. Coordination complexes: valence bond and crystal field theory, magnetic properties and isomerism, color, and geometry.

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Section 4: Chemical Equilibria:

Colligative properties of solutions, buffer and their applications, solubility product, common ion effect, ionic equilibria in solution, hydrolysis of salts, pH. Equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions.

Section 5: Electrochemistry:

Conductance, cell potentials, Kohlrausch law, emf, Nernst equation, thermodynamic aspects and their applications, Galvanic cells.

Section 6: Reaction Kinetics:

Rate constant, molecularity, activation energy, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions, order of reaction, zero, first and second order kinetics,.

Section 7: Thermodynamics:

First law, Kirchoff equation, reversible and irreversible processes, internal energy, enthalpy, heat of reaction, Hess’s law, heat of formation. Second law, entropy, free energy and work function. Gibbs‐Helmholtz equation, equilibrium constant and Trouton’s rule, free energy change, Clausius‐Clapeyron equation. Third law of thermodynamics.

Section 8: Structure-Reactivity Correlations and Organic Reaction Mechanisms: – Acids and bases, optical and geometrical isomerism, electronic and steric effects, tautomerism, conformers and concept of aromaticity. Hoffmann and Saytzeff rules, Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions, Markownikoff rule and Kharash effect., addition reactions, Aromatic electrophilic substitutions, Orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups. Diels‐Alder, Wittig and hydroboration reactions. Identification of functional groups by chemical tests.

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