GATE Syllabus for Botany (XL-J): Students looking for developing their careers in the field of engineering, technology, architecture look forward to getting outstanding results in the GATE examination. It is a post-graduate level subjects in Science as well. The examination commenced by the Indian Institute of Science and now provided with the GATE Syllabus for Botany (XL-J). Given below is the whole syllabus that one needs to prepare to give at its best in the examination.
Section 1: Plant Systematics:
Major systems of classification, phylogenetic relationships, plant groups, and molecular systematics.
Section 2: Plant Anatomy:
Plant cell structure and its components membranes and cell wall; organization, cytoskeleton, an anatomy of root, organelles, floral parts, stem and leaves, embryo and young seedlings, meristems, vascular system, their ontogeny, structure and functions, stellar organization and secondary growth in plants.
Section 3: Morphogenesis & Development:
Cell cycle, pollination, cell division, the life cycle of an angiosperm, fertilization, seed formation, seed storage proteins, embryogenesis, seed dormancy and germination. The concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation; artificial seed, embryo culture, somaclonal variation, organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, secondary metabolism in plant cell culture, in vitro fertilization.
Section 4: Physiology and Biochemistry:
Plant water relations, stress physiology, N2 metabolism, stomatal physiology, transport of minerals and solutes, signal transduction, photosynthesis, photorespiration; respiration, Flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, molecular mechanism of senescence and aging, biochemical mechanisms involved in flowering; structure and function of biomolecules, biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth regulators, (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics.
Section 5: Genetics:
Principles of Mendelian inheritance recombination, linkage, genetic mapping; prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization, regulation of gene expression, gene mutation and repair, extrachromosomal inheritance; chromosomal aberrations (numerical and structural), transposons.
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Section 6: Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification:
Principles, methods –heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps, selection, hybridization, and molecular markers, sporophytic and haploidy, triploidy, gametophytic self-incompatibility, marker-assisted selection, somatic cell hybridization, transgenic plants and their application in agriculture, gene transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, plastid transformation, molecular pharming, plantibodies.
Section 7: Economic Botany:
A general account of economically and medicinally important plants- yielding fibers, pigments, dyes, gums, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, cereals, pulses, plants, rubber, drugs and narcotics. The economic importance of fungi, lichen, algae, and bacteria.
Section 8: Plant Pathology:
Diseases of important crops caused by fungi, nematodes, bacteria and viruses, Nature and classification of plant diseases, and their control measures, the mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and resistance, plant-microbe beneficial interactions, molecular detection of pathogens
Section 9: Ecology and Environment:
Ecosystems – ecological succession types, dynamics, degradation; energy flow and food chains; pollution and global warming, speciation and extinction, vegetation types of the world, conservation strategies, cryopreservation, phytoremediation.
You can prepare according to the above GATE Syllabus for Botany (XL-J). This is complete information about GATE Syllabus for Botany (XL-J).